These minutes are a composite of three Reinvention Center regional
network meetings: Mid-Atlantic-DC area (April 4, 2003), West Coast-Berkeley
(April 25, 2003), and Midwest-Chicago (June 6, 2003)
Goals of the meeting
The Reinvention Center is now three years old, and the regional networks have
been meeting for two years. This was the fourth round of meetings. While the
first three rounds consisted mostly of discussion of broad issues central to
undergraduate education at research universities and the various roles the Reinvention
Center and participating universities could play in promoting change, there
was a general sense that it was now time to begin translating some of the ideas
that had been set forth into meaningful action. To begin this process, we organized
this last group of meetings around three areas that are integral to research
universities and in which the Center and interested campuses might undertake
- Linking graduate and undergraduate education
- Taking advantage of research universities' wealth of resources and forming
partnerships among key campus units; and
- Transforming large lecture courses.
The goals were to enable campuses to share what they have been
doing with regard to these elements and to learn from their colleagues, to use
this information to discern patterns that may help individual campuses with
their own efforts, and finally, to go beyond the individual campus level and
consider multi-campus approaches to these topics in order to foster collaboration
and collective action and leverage resources and funding.
Funding agencies, which are increasingly moving to consortial patterns of funding,
are encouraging the Center to take the lead in organizing multi-campus projects
that address the interests and priorities of the Center's constituents. They
would like to see different campuses tackling the same issue or working to achieve
the same broad goals, but tackling those goals in their own ways and informing
one another. Dr. Katkin asked the group to think about what is common on their
campuses and how the challenges might be collectively addressed.
The meetings began with a brief summary of current Center activities, including
the outcomes and recommendations from the conference.
1. Conference Outcomes and Recommendations
- The Center's November 2002 conference on "Undergraduate Research and Scholarship
and the Mission of the Research University" was attended by close to 400 people
from over 100 institutions. The proceedings are posted on the Center's Web
site (www.sunysb.edu/Reinventioncenter) and a printed volume has been mailed
to all attendees. Individuals who wish to purchase this volume may do so for
$10.00. Check the Web site for further information.
- Attendees indicated that they would like the Center to follow up the conference
with initiatives in the following areas: programs focusing on the humanities
(this was the single greatest request we received); promoting interdisciplinarity;
developing a common definition of "undergraduate research" that universities
can use to establish their own programs and policies; integrating graduate
and undergraduate education; creating a continuum of experiences that promote
the development of broad competencies and disciplinary skills and prepare
students to engage in research/scholarship; and scaling up. The agenda of
this round of regional network meetings reflects these interests. We are following
up on the interest in interdisciplinarity in two ways. First, the Spotlight
feature on the Web site currently has an essay and models on interdisciplinarity
in general education; it will be followed by a second Spotlight which will
focus on the minor as a good vehicle to promote interdisciplinary. We plan
to feature the University of Southern California here and are looking for
other models as well, so please let me know if your campus uses the minor
effectively in this way. Second, the next Center conference, in Oct/Nov. 2004
will have interdisciplinarity as a central theme. Stay tuned for more info.
- In response to the call for the Center to lead an effort to develop a definition
of "undergraduate research" a sub-committee made up of members of the DC network
has been formed to work on this issue. The members are: Cheryl Beil, George
Washington University; Lisa Kiely, U of Maryland College Park; Karen Laughlin,
Florida State; and Beth Pennington, U of Maryland Baltimore County. The committee
seeks to come up with a definition that will be broad enough to accommodate
different campus interests yet able to serve as a point of reference for campuses
that are endeavoring to develop undergraduate research programs and/or standards.
The VPs for Undergraduate Education of the UC universities are addressing
this issue within a system-wide forum. At the DC meeting, Jodi Wesemann of
the American Chemical Society (ACS) distributed a handout from the ACS Committee
on Professional Training that provides guidelines for the undergraduate research
experience in chemistry, including the desired goals and outcomes for students.
The document, the ACS-CPT Supplement on Undergraduate Research, is available
. *If your campus has a definition of undergraduate research or other guidelines
or benchmarks, please send them to us (firstname.lastname@example.org) for forwarding
to the sub-committee.
- The Center Web site has added many new references and links to programs
described at the conference, and it has incorporated a search engine into
its Web site, making it much more user-friendly.
2. Current Center Initiatives
- A pervasive theme of many of the conference sessions was the need to engage
departments in undergraduate reform efforts since they are the units that
are responsible for designing and delivering the undergraduate curriculum.
The Center is endeavoring to do this through the formation of disciplinary
networks, made up of faculty working in collaboration with professional associations
on discipline-specific curricular and professional issues. A proposal to establish
the first disciplinary network-- in Literary Studies-- is currently pending
with the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). Interest is forming
similar networks has been expressed by colleagues in History, Political Science
and Management/Business. If you would like to be involved in organizing such
a network, please contact Wendy (email@example.com).
Jodi Wesemann of the ACS noted that the best way to tap into disciplinary societies
in any discipline is to involve the faculty who govern them and constitute their
membership. Members of a society's education committee may be able to initiate
discussion and action on a topic. Several faculty suggested that the best approach
might be to start with content and do things within the venue of the society's
education committee or program, bringing in larger groups of faculty from research
universities. Faculty want to hear about things that are working in environments
that are similar to the one in which they work. Together, the Center and faculty,
can help associations figure out how to talk about education beyond the syllabus
level. They might address such questions as: how do you bring research generally
and your research in particular into the classroom? how do you institutionalize
undergraduate research? what does it mean to do undergraduate research 1) within
your discipline; 2) across disciplines? how can your own research benefit from
having undergraduates participate? how do you mentor undergraduates so that
they develop "life" skills as well as skills specific to their area of research.
Having such discussions within the context of disciplinary association forums
also has the potential to promote strong networking.
- A proposal to conduct a multi-campus assessment of undergraduate research,
is currently pending with the NSF. Participating institutions are Case Western
Reserve, U of Connecticut, U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and West Virginia
University. This project is the first multi-campus project the Center has
undertaken; we plan several others and welcome your suggestions for possible
- A proposal to conduct a survey and interviews on bio/math connections is
pending with the NSF. This project is being carried out in collaboration with
the MAA, AAAS and the ASM.
3. Potential Funding Opportunities
For the Center
- Initiatives that aim to strengthen connections between graduate and undergraduate
education, including broadening the preparation of graduate students to include
undergraduate instruction in its fullest sense. Possible partners for such
initiatives include The Re-envisioning the PhD project at the University of
Washington and the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.
- Initiatives directed at transforming the curriculum, especially multi-campus
projects that seek to create a continuum of educational experiences from the
first through the senior year. Some institutions (such as Duke) are way ahead
of others in creating this continuum. One specific question to be considered
is how best to lay out the elements of the continuum; should one specify the
elements year-by-year, or give certain long-range goals? The NSF has expressed
an interest in supporting a multi-campus project with this focus, so again,
if you have ideas for projects with this focus, contact Wendy.
- Service and community-based learning: Participants in a recent NSF workshop
described good examples of service learning experiences that led to research
projects in chemistry; the Imagining America consortium at the University
of Michigan promotes community-based projects that can be carried out by undergraduates
in the humanities and the arts.
- Interdisciplinarity: The NSF is soliciting proposals for initiatives that
focus on the intersections between math and biology (see the Joint Announcement
of Opportunities for FY 2003: Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates
in Biological and Mathematical Sciences http://www.nsf.gov/pubsys/ods/getpub.cfm?ods_key=nsf03037).
- A second follow-up to the Boyer survey, this one six years after.
- Catalyst grants to assist universities interested in applying for funds
to establish a Science of Learning Center. This is a new initiative sponsored
by the NSF. The Reinvention Center is seeking a grant from the NSF, to be
used to help campuses to design and implement the educational activities that
are a critical component of these SL Centers and to design and implement assessment,
dissemination and outreach activities.
For Your Campus
The Chemistry program at the NSF recently held a workshop to consider the
creation of a program to support the development of Undergraduate Research
Centers or consortium (URC) in chemistry. The goals in establishing such
centers are to improve undergraduate education in chemistry by increasing
student involvement in real research (as opposed to lab exercises) and increasing
the chemistry workforce. Although a formal solicitation for URCs has not
yet been issued, the workshop participants recommended that the URCs have
the following characteristics:
- Focus on 1st and 2nd year undergraduates but ideally embrace an extended
community from K-12 through post-graduate
- Be multi-institutional, with diversity in institutional types, and represent
genuine partnerships o Have an impact on capacity; increase the number
of students going into chemistry
- Support curricular reform that integrates research and education
- Have ongoing faculty development
- Include ongoing assessment
- Have an independent administrative staff
- Be sustainable
It was recommended that the URCs be funded at $100,000-$500,000 per year, preferably
up to five years. Proposals from allied areas such as molecular biology and
materials science will be welcomed. A handout summarizing the main points of
the initiative was distributed. Check the NSF Web site for more information
on this initiative.
- The NSF is soliciting proposals to establish Science of Learning Centers
(SLCs). These will be interdisciplinary centers similar to the STCs organized
around a unifying research focus on learning-what it is and "how it is affected
at all levels, ranging from the digital to the societal." "Learning" is broadly
conceived and the research may involve such diverse areas as psychological,
social and pedagogical aspects of learning; the biological basis of learning,
machine learning; learning technologies; and mathematical analyses and modeling
of all of these. The SLCs will be expected to emphasize the application and
translation of research findings into educational settings. For information
on the SLC solicitation, see: http://www.nsf/gov/home/crssprgm/slc.
The Reinvention encourages campuses to consider ways in which the Center can
help them to develop and implement educational outreach, assessment, and dissemination
activities in conjunction with grant-funded programs. The NSF, for instance,
requires all proposals to explicitly address the "Broader Impact" of the funded
activity, including the integration of research and education. The Reinvention
- Serve as a resource by providing information on effective educational outreach
activities and research findings and assisting campuses in drawing them as
they plan new efforts;
- Carry out assessment of specific activities, including placing those activities
in a larger context; and ·
- Serve as an agent for dissemination of outreach activities and project findings
by circulating information through its regional and disciplinary networks,
Web site, listservs, conferences, and other activities. If you are interested
in involving the Center in your next grant proposal, let Wendy know.
CAMPUS REPORTS AND BREAKOUT SESSIONS
Each campus was asked to briefly describe one or two initiatives related to
the topics around which the meeting was organized: integrating graduate and
undergraduate education; forming partnerships with key campus units and taking
advantage of the wealth of resources; and transforming large lecture courses.
Following the reports, participants divided into breakout groups to address
these issues in greater depth. Each breakout group was asked to identify one
or two promising practices that can be used and built upon, and to identify
areas on which further initiatives -- that go beyond what is currently done
and move existing practices to the next level -- should focus, especially with
an eye toward multi-campus projects.
A number of common themes were raised in the group discussion. Expanded enrollments
have put pressures on virtually all the campuses, as have diminished resources.
As faculty at all three network meetings pointed out, campuses are trying to
build a culture that values undergraduate education, but it cannot be done for
free and resource issues always come to the fore.
Summaries combining the reports of the breakout sessions at all three network
meetings, are described below, along with a small number of especially innovative
practices. Many other noteworthy initiatives however were also presented. We
would also like to include links to these initiatives, as well as other effective
programs on your campuses, on the Reinvention Center Web site. We invite you
to send us the following information on all initiatives you would like referenced
on the Web site:
-Name and brief description (1-3 sentences)
-Contact person's name, title, email address and phone no.
-Web site address
I. Integrating Graduate and Undergraduate Education
Linking graduate and undergraduate education is a new priority on several
campuses, in part because campuses are increasingly aware that many of their
doctoral students will go on to careers at primarily undergraduate institutions
and therefore need teaching experiences and training to help develop them as
"future faculty." Promoting this linkage requires a partnership between a central
authority (i.e. the Graduate School, the Office for Undergraduate Education)
and the discipline. On more and more campuses, teaching resource centers, schools
of education, and individual departments are working together to provide teaching
practica for graduate students. Many campuses now hold "learning" forums in
which graduate students and faculty share best practices within and across disciplines.
Several institutions offer certificates in college teaching to graduate students
who complete a training program. Some institutions participate in the Preparing
Future Faculty program in which their students also receive experience teaching
at institutions other than research universities. In addition to classroom experiences,
graduate students - especially in the sciences -- often mentor undergraduates
informally in vertically-integrated lab teams that include faculty, post-docs,
graduate students, and undergraduates and in summer REU programs. Service learning
offers new opportunities as well. Campuses hope to expand and formalize these
The breakout groups identified a number of promising practices, though noted
that in many cases they are easier to implement in the sciences than in the
humanities, and in some cases science graduate directors are not willing to
give up their graduate students to let them teach. The practices described here
fall into four broad areas:
Graduate Students as Research Mentors
- Stony Brook University's Women in Science and Engineering program (WISE)
offers a two-course sequence for graduate students: "Designing and Supervising
Undergraduate Research" and "Introduction to Research." In the first course,
offered in the fall semester, graduate students design research projects that
are carried out under their supervision by small teams of undergraduates.
These projects are of three-week duration. See http://www.wise.sunysb.edu/Wise%20College/WISE%20187%20Intro%20to%20Research%20Summary.htm.
- Many campuses are involving graduate students in all phases of research,
not simply supervision of a project. The University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill's Office of Undergraduate Research funds Graduate Mentors to work with
undergraduates who are completing research projects, in all disciplines. In
Social Psychology, for example, Graduate Consultants help students turn a
class final project into a research project; the graduate students are hired
on a short-term basis and may teach research techniques, accompany student
teams to do field work, critique proposals, and help students prepare the
- At the University of Maryland, College Park, Research Internships in Science
and Engineering (RISE), an NSF-funded program to attract and retain women
in science, matches groups of four incoming students with a faculty member,
a graduate student, and an advanced undergraduate to work as a team on a project.
Graduate students involved in this project reported that as a result they
had a better idea of what they might be expected to do as faculty.
Graduate Students as Peers in Courses and in Informal Settings
- A Classics seminar on Ovid at the University of Maryland, intended as both
preparation for those intending to teach K-12 and as a continuing-education
credit for those already teaching, includes secondary school teachers enrolled
at the graduate level, who serve as potential mentors to the undergraduates
(who produced some of the best papers).
- In UC-Davis's newly-created College of LaRue, graduate and undergraduate
students reside together and participate in a variety of activities such as
films series and foreign language tables designed to enhance their educational
experiences. The graduate students lead programs, hosted discussions arising
from these activities in order to meet eligibility requirements to live in
- Colloquia and talks offer an excellent opportunity for collective engagement
of graduate and undergraduate students.
- Duke has a teaching fellow program (Mellon-funded) to prepare graduate students
for their future instructional roles; it provides special funding to allow
advanced graduate students to prepare and teach a seminar in their area of
specialization to undergraduates. Graduate students volunteer to participate
and receive a certificate on completion.
- Bryn Mawr College offers Teaching Fellowships funded by the Keck Foundation
to graduate students in their last two years of graduate study.
- NYU's Teaching Partner Program provides workshops for graduate students
who are trained to develop workshops in teaching for other graduate students.
- The University of Kentucky offers a Graduate Teaching Certificate which
requires students to do internships at a small liberal arts college.
- Stanford University's Center for Teaching and Learning trains graduate students
to work with departments to develop discipline-specific training.
- The University of Minnesota's Research Site for Educators in Chemistry brings
together faculty from universities and four-year colleges to develop and deliver
better and more authentic research experiences to students.
Graduate Students as Advisors on Career and Graduate School Choices
- Graduate students in Psychology at the University of Maryland host a graduate
school fair with workshops for undergraduates on career choices and the graduate
school applications process.
- Many campuses/departments have established forums in which graduate students
"pass on tools" and speak informally to undergraduates about their experiences
as graduate students and their professional goals.
An unusual example of a collaborative project in the humanities that involves
both graduates and undergraduates is the University at Buffalo's 'LiTgloss'
project (http://wings.buffalo.edu/litgloss/), designed to facilitate English
speakers' reading of texts in other languages with which they have some familiarity.
'LiTgloss' is an online collection of texts from languages ranging from Arabic
to Vietnamese (with most texts drawn from French, German, and Spanish), presented
in their original language with annotations, translations, and (in some cases)
sound recordings that are revealed by clicking on the word or phrase in question.
The project draws on the expertise of foreign-speaking graduate students as
well as on that of advanced undergraduates who are majoring in a foreign language.
Areas for Future Development
The DC group was asked to develop areas for a proposal to the NSF for an
assessable multi-campus 'intervention' aimed at integrating graduate and undergraduate
education. The following ideas were put forth, ranked in order of their feasibility
and assessability on multiple campuses:
- Educating graduate students (and their disciplinary directors) on the value
of undergraduate education so they can be enticed out of the lab.
- Raising awareness among graduate students of relevant research on learning,
including cognitive science and applications to teaching.
- Connecting science to other disciplines, including training both graduate
and undergraduate students in the sciences to be able to communicate their
discipline to others.
- Educating faculty about the value of mentoring undergraduates, so they will
support graduate students doing so.
- Graduate student training requires a partnership between a central authority
and the discipline. There should be "learning" forums, in which graduate students
and faculty participate, for sharing best practices within and across disciplines.
- Colloquia and talks Graduate and undergraduate students
II. Forming Partnerships with Key Campus Units and External Organizations
Partnerships with units such as the university libraries, academic support
and instructional technology departments, teaching resource centers, offices
that coordinate undergraduate research, writing centers, service learning units,
academic advising centers, and student groups, can promote and enhance undergraduate
education. There are a number of good examples of such partnerships.
- North Carolina State University's Learning and Research Center for the Digital
Age (http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/administration/lrcda/) offers media and digital
labs, instructional technology teaching labs, presentation space, and a resource
center to provide guidance to faculty and students on copyright matters for
both digital and print forms of scholarly publishing.
- Duke University librarians provide 'just in time' course-specific training
to students on how to access and evaluate material from the library collections
and online databases.
- University of Maryland, College Park's Gemstone program (http://gemstone.umd.edu),
a four-year multidisciplinary learning community, has a librarian on every
team from start to finish.
- The University of Washington imposed a tax on all departments in order to
create a fund to support "weed" or "seed" grants. These grants, which are
awarded on a competitive basis, aim to get faculty to use new resources in
order to expand research opportunities for undergraduates and to assist faculty
to customize a template to help fund student research.
- UWill at the University of Washington (http://www.lib.washington.edu/uwill/index.html)
provides support for teaching information competencies in course contexts.
It offers online instructional templates addressing a range of concepts related
to information-seeking, as well as other strategies, to deliver instruction
and generate assignments and course activities that help students develop
mastery of information-seeking strategies.
Some universities draw on resources unique to their location:
- NYU's Center for Teaching developed a fund to allow faculty to take students
to do research or service at locations in the city.
- George Washington University received a grant from the Hewlett Foundation
to "bring Washington, DC into the classroom" through archival research, courtroom
visits, and other experiences.
- The University at Buffalo's Community-Linked Interdisciplinary Research
(CLIR) program (http://www.clir.buffalo.edu/) consists of courses designed
around community research needs. Current course topics include the African
refugee population, the Underground Railroad, Web design for public service
clients, and environmental chemistry.
- The University of South Dakota has two innovative interdisciplinary REU
programs that take advantage of their location. One involves a collaboration
with a local museum and is organized around an archeological site in the region
and involves students in Anthropology, History, Education and Museum Studies.
The second REU program retraces the Lewis and Clark expedition. Undergraduates
do research on a wide range of topics ranging from history, to studies of
policy decisions to laboratory-based work. This REU is open to undergraduates
in all disciplines with the University providing funds for those who are not
eligible for REU support.
- Dennis Jacobs at Notre Dame has created an innovative multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary
community-based research project in which students canvas neighborhoods, first
to locate houses that have high lead levels and then to investigate a range
of related factors. Student projects vary from biochemistry studies to policy
development when for example blood results are positive, to family studies,
to social impact studies, to engineering projects.
Universities are increasingly endeavoring to coordinate activities among the
multiple units on their campus that have responsibility for aspects of undergraduate
- UC-Berkeley's Council of Academic Partners (CAP; http://education.berkeley.edu/cap/),
an advisory group to the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, is a collaboration
of varied campus units that encourage, support and enhance excellence in teaching
at the undergraduate and graduate levels. All levels of teaching staff participate.
- The Mellon Faculty Institute on Undergraduate Research at UC-Berkeley (http://library.berkeley.edu/Mellon),
comprised of the GSI Teaching and Resource Center, Educational Technology
Services and the Library, brings together resident expertise in course design,
assessment and other critical areas to assist faculty in redesigning their
courses to make students delve.
- UC-Davis has created an Advising Forum made up of colleges across the campus.
Each year one college is the focus. The purpose is to bring the campus up
to date on what all the colleges are doing and to create links where appropriate
in implementing activities.
Areas for Future Development: Recommendations
- Community-based research is an overlooked way of involving both students
and faculty that also helps land-grant institutions fulfill the service component
of their mission. The Reinvention Center should involve community-based research
and service learning practitioners programs in its discussions. One suggestion
was to invite the Director of the Georgetown University-based Community Research
and Learning Network (http://www.coralnetwork.org), which promotes collaborative
community-based work that involves both local organizations and the faculty
and students of DC-area colleges and universities, to give a presentation
at a future regional meeting.
- Develop a set of "best practices" for the Web pages of offices that coordinate
undergraduate research, with the goal of making it easy for students and faculty
to find out about undergraduate research at their institution. Provide guidance
on the essential elements of such a page and some good models. One very specific
practical suggestion is that all undergraduate research offices should add
"UROP" (Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program) to their meta-tags,
whether or not the office goes by that acronym, because it is one of the most
common terms by which both faculty and students will search for such an office.
The Center would like to follow up on this recommendation immediately and
is looking for good models. If your campus has one, please send us the Web address.
III. Transforming Large Lecture Courses
The large lecture format is a given at research universities, particularly
in lower-division courses, but there are ways to re-conceive these courses to
emphasize experiential and inquiry-based learning and engage the full range
of students. Faculty need to re-think the goals of these courses, to determine
what students should take away from them, rather than focus on "what should
I teach." On many campuses, teaching research centers offer services -- such
as grants for innovation, workshops, and technological support -- to both faculty
and graduate teaching assistants in order to improve the quality of instruction
in large lecture (and other) courses.
- Creating small group experiences within a large-group setting, potentially
creating opportunities for inquiry- or problem-based learning. One good way
of doing this is to use peer-to-peer learning in which students are divided
into small groups to discuss a question or problem posed by the instructor,
and report back their answers.
- This small-group approach can often be facilitated by the use of advanced
undergraduates. In the University of Pittsburgh's Peer-Led Teaching model,
upper-level undergraduates serve as team leaders in discussion sections.
The University of South Florida's Introductory Chemistry classes incorporate
a peer-led Problem-Based Learning component in which breakout groups are
led by junior or senior Chemistry majors. A similar component at the University
at Buffalo uses students who are preparing for the MCATs as group leaders;
they get one academic credit for their participation, along with a good
review of general chemistry.
- Using technology (thoughtfully and appropriately) to enrich both content
- Technology such as "Personal Response Systems" can enable instructors
to quickly compile the responses of individuals and/or small groups to
questions posed in class and see what percentage of students understand
the material and where the difficulties are.
- Computer-based tutorials and supplements can help address the problem
of delivering the same content to students of varying ability. At Duke
University, self-paced tutorials for students have enabled Economics classes
to integrate more quantitative material.
- Substituting or adding practical experiences to existing courses. Bryn Mawr
College experimented with eliminating lectures in its Neuroscience courses;
instead groups of 4-8 students met in lab groups, in which they had to construct
hypotheses and ask questions to test them. This proved to be a difficult and
undefined way for undergraduates to learn science, and the students evaluated
it very negatively. A more successful approach was taken by departments that
incorporated a praxis experience. Students in Sociology, for example, were
required to work at a social services agency in Philadelphia, writing in detail
about the experience, putting it in theoretical context.
- Allowing advanced graduate students to teach their own sections of introductory
courses reduces class size. The University of South Florida's Sociology department
offers the Introduction to Sociology both in the fall semester, in one large
class taught by a faculty member with the assistance of graduate teaching
assistants, and in the spring as a series of smaller classes taught independently
by graduate students who have served as TAs in the fall. Students can opt
for either the large or the small version.
We cannot assume that all large lectures are bad and all courses taught in small
sections are good. We need to know what we are doing now, articulate what we
want to do, and compare them, to determine the extent to which we are achieving
our goals. But what are the measures of success? How can we measure what we
are currently doing? How do we know what we are assessing? How can we measure
new innovations? We have to consider large lecture courses for themselves as
well as in the context of the larger educational package.
Instead of the traditional model whereby freshmen enroll in enormous lecture
courses and upper-division students attend small seminars, campuses should consider
capping first-year courses at a low number, especially in order to address the
variations in entering students' preparation. It was noted, however, that upper-division
courses in popular majors such as psychology and the life sciences are often
quite large as well.